Monitoring Applications

Water monitoring

The CytoSense instruments are especially designed for fast analysis, while their availability as benchtop,  -Sub and/or -Buoy system opens up new possibilities for studying particles in situ.

Three most important features of our systems in water monitoring application are:

  • autonomous sampling of particles in wide range of size and concentrations
  • real-time (particle) monitoring with results accessible online
  • possibility of studying non-fluorescing particles through staining module 

HAbs monitoring

Mitigating the disastrous effects of HABs requires a real-time and high-frequency detection of even small amounts of potentially harmful species. The CytoSense flow cytometers pose an excellent answer to this challenge, enabling for example:

  • analysis from a single-cell picoplankton up to large, fragile colonies and filaments
  • detection of less abundant phytoplankters amongst more abundant ones
  • measurements directly from a water body or integrated in existing workflows in your lab 

Check how the CytoSense flow cytometers are used in HABs detection, monitoring and mitigation: 

  • River Meuse water quality monitoring over the years

The CytoSense on the river Meuse runs already 5th year. The river provides drinking water and the hourly flow cytometric analysis poses part of the early warning system for water quality. Click here to see the results real-time. The project is led by the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment, in close collaboration with CytoBuoy and Thomas Rutten Projects.

  • Microcystis sp. monitored in Lake Taihu

Since August 2016 a CytoSense installed on a platform on Lake Taihu is monitoring Microcystis aeruginosa on this third largest lake in China. The project is a collaboration between Taihu Basin Authority, Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment and Thomas Rutten Projects.

On the same lake Zhou et al. (2012) used the CytoSense flow cytometer to analyse single cells and colonies up to 400 μm large of the harmful bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis. Resulting data enabled the authors to develop method to calculate number of single cells in different sized colonies present in lake sediments.

  • Monitoring of Akashiwo sanguinea abundance

Hourly monitoring of phytoplanktonic species using the CytoSense in Berre Lagoon showed dynamics of Akashiwo sanguinea before, during and after strong wind (mistral). This algae species is known to form harmful algal blooms (HAB). Results published in Dugenne et al. (2015).

  • On-board flow cytometric analysis of Phaeocystis globosa

The CytoSense is applied to study Phaeocystis globosa, marine algae known to form nuisance blooms. In this video PhD candidate Reinhoudt De Blok describes the research. 

  • Effects of short-term environmental events on phytoplankton community

With the CytoSense measurements scheduled every 2 hours, Thyssen et al. (2014) were able to observe how nutrient pools and rain and wind events shape the blooms of pico- and nanophytoplankton, before the onset of a microphytoplankton bloom. The CytoSense was installed on a buoy and operated remotely throughout the 2 months measuring campaign. 

  • Real-time monitoring of Alexandrium ostenfeldii treatment with H2O2

Effect of small amounts of hydroxyl peroxide on potentially harmful dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii was monitored with a CytoSense in a collaborative project of the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment, University of Amsterdam and Arcadis. Read more about this project in our news item

Aquaculture monitoring

Protection of farmed fish, shellfish, shrimps, algae and other aquatic organisms relies on frequent and quick check for presence of possible parasites and other pests. These threats can be as small as sub-micrometer bacteria or larger, like protozoa and fungi Chytrids, up to organisms of several millimeters such as copepods

The CytoSense is the only flow cytometer which analyses this wide size range of particles in a fully automated manner, with no need to exchange any subunit of the instrument. The water from aquaculture area can be sampled directly (no cuvette exchange) and analysed with a frequency down to a few minutes. If needed, for example in the case of detection of bacteria, the flow cytometer comes with the Autonomous Staining Module

Ballast water

The primary goal of the treatment of ballast water is to prevent the dispersion of non indigenous marine and freshwater organisms. Using the CytoSense data, the data load is limited as compared to collecting images and allows fast sample processing and qualitiative/ quantitative particle' diagnostics. Read more about it in paper by Peperzak et al., (2018).