Bio-engineering, biotechnology and bioprocess technology, at-line process analytical technology. 

Flow cytometry is a rapid particle analyis method, useful in a variety of fields like enzyme studies, protein engineering, animal-cell biotechnology, cellular physiology, nanobiotechnology, biofuels and biomass development, renewable resource engineering, bioreactor monitoring, algal systems and bioremediation, metabolic and cellular engineering, plant-cell biotechnology, stem-cell bioengineering, etc.   In many cases the samples to be analysed are of a complex nature, with extremes in cell and particle sizes, fragile particles and extremes in their concentrations.  Whereas this may limit the use of traditional flow cytometers, CytoSense was designed for such extremes and may prove an unexpectedly useful tool, interactively or as at-line process analysis technology.

Key features of CytoSense are:

  • extended range flow cytometer for small and big cells and clusters
  • flow cytometry data   +   scanning  +  bright field imaging
  • data and scanning for several scatter and fluorescence channels
  • flow cytometry data for all particles (large and small)
  • scanning adds info for particles >10µm to  <800/2500 µm (w/l)
  • bright field images for (sections of) particles  >1µm to <500µm
  • fast data processing and high resolution information
  • accurate counting of larger particles
  • a wide range of target analyses / essays / services
  • small, easy to use, affordable, safe

Whether your aim is to analyse submicron particles, cells from small to large, pollen, combinatorial chemistry beads, fungi e.g. microcolonies of Aspergillus alsofilamentous fungi,  yeasts, eggs, embryos and larvae, nematodes like C. elegans, cell clusters, organoids, and embryoid bodies, encapsulated hydrogel particles, protoplasts and calluses, microcapsules etc.  The CytoSense flow cytometer will serve you well with state of art views on your particles, as shown for a peculiar plankton filament with localized intracellular gas vesicles.

Example of a captured scan of scatter and fluorescence plus the captured image (shown: a plankton filament trichome of 360µm length: note that by intracellular gas vesicles concentrated in the middle part of the trichome the forward and sideward light scatter properties dramatically change, whereas the pigment fluorescence emissons are unaffected. The gas vesicles also change the image properties. 

CytoSense is used for the smallest submicron cells on earth (Prochlorococcus marina) as well as spermatozoa, yeasts, fungi, artificial alginate particles (picture), as well as nematodes (picture), and has even analysed organisms like tardigrades (picture), sea lice and mites. 

*larger versions available: call

testing alginate particles
Scan of nematode (juvenile M.Fallax) with localized fluorescence
Tardigrade skin

The standard* version goes up to 800 µm in width, with longer particles being scanned up to 2.5mm length. Small cells and particles are not overlooked with an image resolution better than 1 µm and sensitive light scatter and fluorescence detection (100nm polystyrene beads are detected); high concentrations supported.  Analyse all in a single instrument without subsampling/filtration.

Example of at-line application 

Spore inoculum quality in fungal bioprocesses was monitored with a CytoSense as a fast process analytical technology (PAT).  Both the concentration  of viable spores, as well as the swelling and growing of hyphae were recorded at-line.

Concentration of FDA positive spores of Penicillium chrysogenum in the bioreactor from inoculation to spore germination and spore swelling. (Laboratory on Mechanistic and Physiological Methods for Improved Bioprocesses, Vienna University of Technology)
Particles of alll growth stages from small cells, spores up to pellets are accurately being analysed and counted,  scanned and imaged.  
Image of a pellet captured by the in-flow camera (a) , and detector signals scan (b) to be used as a criteria for capturing images at specific signal levels. The size of the pellet can be easily calculated using the forward scatter signal.

From: A. Golabgir, D. Ehgartner, L. Neutsch, A.E. Posch, P. Sagmeister, C. Herwig. Imaging Flow Cytometry and High-Throughput Microscopy for Automated Macroscopic Morphological Analysis of Filamentous Fungi, In: van den Berg M., Maruthachalam K. (eds) Genetic Transformation Systems in Fungi, Volume 2. Fungal Biology. Springer, Cham., 2015, 201-210

Automation in cell monitoring processes

Automation of sample loading to the CytoSense is possible by coupling to a third party sample processing device such as a pipetting robot (e.g. Tecan Group Ltd. Zürich), or consider on-line operation with  a liquid handling device coupled to bioreactors.  Such devices may also be capable of automatic fluorescent staining of samples.  CytoBuoy offers a proprietary fluorescent staining device for online staining of a samples, with one or two dye dosing units (picture)  

fluorescent staining device

Alternatively, CytoBuoy offers a proprietary solution for automated analysis and monitoring of multiple samples or experimental setups, called the multi-point-selector. A lab system (picture) enables you to sample from multiple individual sample stations with individual scheduling.  A large outdoor system may be designed for your specific situation to facilitate probing multiple tanks or ponds from a single CytoSense or CytoSub instrument.

selector units for automated sampling

For gentle but effective mixing of a suspension with large and quickly precipitating particles in larger sample container we offer a magnetically driven mixer

stirrer, magnetically driven